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Senin, 22 Oktober 2012

Electric Power produces by Wind

Author: John Daviz

One of the issues that the world is concern nowadays is about energy savings - how to minimize our carbon prints usage. There are lots of ways being promoted by some green environmentalists - one of this is all about a renewable energy. This kind of energy is coming from our own natural resources like geothermal energy - hot gas coming from volcanic activities underground that produce tremendous heat that would turn into energy that generates electric power (electricity) to the people.
Wind is also a good source of energy that is renewable. This is only applicable to places that have constant required speed of the wind to turn the turbine (wind turbine) to produce electric power - electricity. There are different types of renewable energy; geothermal energy - as what I had mentioned, sun for solar energy, water for hydro power, waves and tides also for wave and tidal power, biofuel and biomas. All of these energy sources are have one common purpose - to generate clean and green quality of electricity to produce electric power to the consuming public.
In wind electric power, it needs a required speed of wind to turn the turbines that would perform the job.
Wind and sun power has far more different in terms of producing power. Sun relies on amount of heat that would turn into electricity from photovoltaic solar cells build into panels while wind produces electric power with the following components: Rotor shaft, a gear box, blades, the motor, the hub and more. The main component in order for these other components to work is wind - to make it into wind electric power.
Here is little basic system how wind electric power works.
There's a generator that has strong magnets that wrap around the coils of magnet wire. Through continuous spinning it produces inside the coil it produces electricity inside the coil which similarly with the sun power system. On the process of required standard wind speed, the blade being hit by the wind turns the turbine that produces electricity to homeowners. On this process, you need a bridge rectifier, charge controller, batteries and inverter.
The blade being used by a wind electric power classified into different kinds and also with the wind turbines.
Connecting the power system into home's wiring, it needs knowledge because of the alternating and direct current run. In order to install it perfectly you have to have an expert and reliable electrician on this job. Wind electric power generation varies. This all depends on the weather condition and some other factors.
Having your home connected with wind electric power - you have unlimited usage of electricity and enjoys the low monthly electric bills. Using this kind of electric supply, you would enjoy not only on energy savings but you contributed your consciousness of green environment by using clean and renewable source of energy - minimizing our carbon foot prints.
If all cities in the world - through the help of its government - educate its people to use renewable energy then we could contribute a great share of energy savings that minimizes our carbon footprints that help restoring our dying planet.
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John Daviz loves to write and tell stories about his reliable and
trusted electric power professionals.
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The cables and switches are used to activate the electric powered machine

 Author: packers movers

The most acquainted method of button is a physically or by hand activated electro machine energetic expedient by means of one or more arrangements of electrically powered acquaintances which are associated to exterior circuits. Every one conventional of associates might be in individual of two circumstances. The Mechanically activated buttons might be used to controller the gesticulations of technologies like as: -to point toward that a storage entrance has get hold of its filled exposed situation or that a mechanism contrivance is in a situation to agree to take an additional work portion. The buttons may perhaps be functioned by way of procedure inconstant consists as: - gravity, high temperature, movement, electric current, electrical energy, and power, substitute appraisers in a progression and used to mechanically controller a structure. An electric switch that is activated by dint of a different electrically powered circuit is baptized as impart. The bulky buttons may well be the slightest bit functioned through an electrically powered motivation apparatus. A number of switches are utilized to insulate electrical power control from a structure provided that an observable argument of segregation that might be swab protected stipulation obligatory to preclude unintended procedure of a contraption for the duration of conservation or to preclude electrically powered shockwave. A button is used in an underwired linkage to associate Ethernet manacles from an amount of diplomacies collected. The button agrees to every one expedient to conversation by means of the formers. The buttons are not used in linkages by way of individual cable less acquaintances. In the meantime network system diplomacies like as: - routers and connectors interconnect in a straight line through one a different device. The Cable Float Switch

is used to connect the two cables with each other.

The switches are enthusiastic, energetic and shrewd diplomacies to effort considerably more proficiently than the further net linkage devices. The buttons are used to construct mini subdivisions in the system. The persistence of splitting up is to go without commencing the information and networks to intersection every one further. A bimetallic strip is a high temperature functioned button used to controller a space heating progression. The electric switches have a quantity of benefits like as: -switches agree to masses of diplomacies to associate each other, buttons hang onto stream of traffic flanked by two diplomacies from being paid in the technique of the other expedients exhausting the similar net, switches permit controller of right to use to a number of fragments of the system, buttons countenance to display procedure, buttons permit announcement that is equally more rapidly than the Internet system and extraordinary finale buttons be necessary wad able building block to modify them to net requirements. The net system buttons oblige immeasurable determinations and expenditures. They are a consistent and well organized system to inaugurate linking. There are many type of switches be contingent on the trial product in which they are utilized. There are innumerable categorizations of buttons kept in check in a net linkage are mismanaged buttons and accomplished buttons. The smallest amount extensive buttons are used intended for its identifiable construction and insignificant network procedures are also entitled unachieved buttons. In the unpretentious network systems a button is not obligatory for memorandums that are conducted and acknowledged in the interior the system.
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Minggu, 23 Oktober 2011


Steam adalah bahasa teknis dari uap air, yaitu fase gas dari air yang terbentuk ketika air mendidih. Untuk mengubah air dari fase liquid (cair) menjadi fase gas (steam) diperlukan energi panas untuk menaikan temperature air yang biasa disebut sebagai “Sensible Heat”. Pada tekanan atmosphere titik didih air adalah 1000C (2120F) sedangkan apabila tekanan pada sistem dinaikan maka energi panas yang diperlukan juga ikut naik.
Pada saat perubahan fase cair menjadi steam, temperature air tidak akan naik meskipun dengan penambahan panas, penambahan panas digunakan untuk merubah phase air dari cair ke gas. 

Gambar 1 grafik perubahan fase air
keterangan :
Q1   = Energi kalor yang digunakan untuk memanaskan air hingga titik didih
Q2   = Energi kalor yang digunakan untuk merubah fase air dari cair ke gas
M    = Massa ( Kg )
C     = Kalor Jenis ( J/KgC ) (banyak kalor untuk menaikkan suhu 1 kg zat sebesar 10C)
Δ T  = Perubahan Suhu ( C )
L     = Kalor Laten ( J/Kg ) (banyak kalor untuk merubah wujud suatu zat)
Dari gambar grafik perubahan fase air diatas bisa dilihat bahwa untuk energi kalor yang diperlukan untuk mengubah fase air dari cair ke gas adalah:
Steam yang dipanaskan sampai pada temperature jenuhnya disebut Dry Saturated Steam. Sedangkan steam yang belum dipanaskan sampai temperature jenuhnya disebut wet steam. Presentase air dalam wet steam disebut sebagai %moisture. Sehingga untuk mendapatkan kualitas steam dari wet steam adalah:

Pada gambar diatas dapat dilihat proses dari terbentuknya steam. Campuran bahan bakar (fuel) dan udara terjadi pembakaran pada ruang Furnace Boiler, sehingga terjadi perpindahan panas menuju air.

Sabtu, 22 Oktober 2011

Prinsip Kerja Generator AC

kecepatan rotor dan frekuensi dari tegangan yang dibangkitkan oleh suatu generator sinkron berbanding secara langsung. Gambar 1 akan memperlihatkan prinsip kerja dari sebuah generator AC dengan dua kutub, dan dimisalkan hanya memiliki satu lilitan yang terbuat dari dua penghantar secara seri, yaitu penghantar a dan a’.

Gambar 1. Diagram Generator AC Satu Phasa Dua Kutub.

Lilitan seperti disebutkan diatas disebut “Lilitan terpusat”, dalam generator sebenarnya terdiri dari banyak lilitan dalam masing-masing fasa yang terdistribusi pada masing-masing alur stator dan disebut “Lilitan terdistribusi”. Diasumsikan rotor berputar searah jarum jam, maka fluks medan rotor bergerak sesuai lilitan jangkar. Satu putaran rotor dalam satu detik menghasilkan satu siklus per detik atau 1 Hertz (Hz).

Bila kecepatannya 60 Revolution per menit (Rpm), frekuensi 1 Hz. Maka untuk frekuensi f = 60 Hz, rotor harus berputar 3600 Rpm. Untuk kecepatan rotor n rpm, rotor harus berputar pada kecepatan n/60 revolution per detik (rps). Bila rotor mempunyai lebih dari 1 pasang kutub, misalnya P kutub maka masing-masing revolution dari rotor menginduksikan P/2 siklus tegangan dalam lilitan stator. Frekuensi dari tegangan induksi sebagai sebuah fungsi dari kecepatan rotor, dan diformulasikan dengan:

dimana :
f = frekuensi tegangan (Hz)
p = jumlah kutub pada rotor
n = kecepatan rotor (rpm)

Untuk generator sinkron tiga fasa, harus ada tiga belitan yang masing-masing terpisah sebesar 120 derajat listrik dalam ruang sekitar keliling celah udara seperti diperlihatkan pada kumparan a – a’, b – b’ dan c – c’ pada gambar 2. Masing-masing lilitan akan menghasilkan gelombang Fluksi sinus satu dengan lainnya berbeda 120 derajat listrik. Dalam keadaan seimbang besarnya fluksi sesaat :

ΦA = Φm. Sin ωt
ΦB = Φm. Sin ( ωt – 120° )
ΦC = Φm. Sin ( ωt – 240° )

Gambar 2. Diagram Generator AC Tiga Fasa Dua Kutub
Besarnya fluks resultan adalah jumlah vektor ketiga fluks tersebut adalah:
ΦT = ΦA +ΦB + ΦC, yang merupakan fungsi tempat (Φ) dan waktu (t), maka besarnya fluks total adalah:
ΦT = Φm.Sin ωt + Φm.Sin(ωt – 120°) + Φm. Sin(ωt– 240°). Cos (φ – 240°)

Dengan memakai transformasi trigonometri dari :
Sin α . Cos β = ½.Sin (α + β) + ½ Sin (α + β ),

maka dari persamaan diatas diperoleh :
ΦT = ½.Φm. Sin (ωt +φ )+ ½.Φm. Sin (ωt – φ) + ½.Φm. Sin ( ωt + φ – 240° )+ ½.Φm. Sin (ωt – φ) +½.Φm. Sin (ωt + φ – 480°)

Dari persamaan diatas, bila diuraikan maka suku kesatu, ketiga, dan kelima akan saling menghilangkan. Dengan demikian dari persamaan akan didapat fluksi total sebesar:
ΦT = ¾ Φm. Sin ( ωt – Φ ) Weber .

Jadi medan resultan merupakan medan putar dengan modulus 3/2 Φ dengan sudut putar sebesar ω. Maka besarnya tegangan masing-masing fasa adalah :

E maks = Bm. ℓ. ω r Volt

dimana :
Bm = Kerapatan Fluks maksimum kumparan medan rotor (Tesla)
ℓ     = Panjang masing-masing lilitan dalam medan magnetik (Weber)
ω    = Kecepatan sudut dari rotor (rad/s)
r      = Radius dari jangkar (meter)

Generator Tanpa Beban

Apabila sebuah mesin sinkron difungsikan sebagai generator dengan diputar pada kecepatan sinkron dan rotor diberi arus medan (If), maka pada kumparan jangkar stator akan diinduksikan tegangan tanpa beban (Eo), yaitu sebesar:

Eo = 4,44 .Kd. Kp. f. φm. T

Dalam keadaan tanpa beban arus jangkar tidak mengalir pada stator, sehingga tidak terdapat pengaruh reaksi jangkar. Fluks hanya dihasilkan oleh arus medan (If). Bila besarnya arus medan dinaikkan, maka tegangan keluaran juga akan naik sampai titik saturasi (jenuh), seperti diperlihatkan pada gambar 3. Kondisi generator tanpa beban bisa digambarkan rangkaian ekuivalennya seperti diperlihatkan pada gambar 3b.

Gambar 3a dan 3b. Kurva dan Rangkaian Ekuivalen Generator Tanpa Beban
Generator Berbeban

Bila generator diberi beban yang berubah-ubah maka besarnya tegangan terminal V akan berubah-ubah pula, hal ini disebabkan adanya kerugian tegangan pada: 
  • Resistansi Jangkar : Resistansi jangkar/fasa Ra menyebabkan terjadinya kerugian tegang/fasa (tegangan jatuh/fasa) dan I.Ra yang sefasa dengan arus jangkar.
  • Reaktansi Bocor Jangkar : Saat arus mengalir melalui penghantar jangkar, sebagian fluks yang terjadi tidak mengimbas pada jalur yang telah ditentukan, hal seperti ini disebut Fluks Bocor.
  • Reaksi Jangkar : Adanya arus yang mengalir pada kumparan jangkar saat generator dibebani akan menimbulkan fluksi jangkar (ΦA ) yang berintegrasi dengan fluksi yang dihasilkan pada kumparan medan rotor(ΦF), sehingga akan dihasilkan suatu fluksi resultan sebesar :

Interaksi antara kedua fluksi ini disebut sebagai reaksi jangkar, seperti diperlihatkan pada Gambar 4 dibawah ini. yang mengilustrasikan kondisi reaksi jangkar untuk jenis beban yang berbeda-beda.
Gambar 4a, 4b, 4c dan 4d. Kondisi Reaksi Jangkar.
  • Gambar 4a , memperlihatkan kondisi reaksi jangkar saat generator dibebani tahanan (resistif) sehingga arus jangkar Ia sefasa dengan GGL Eb dan ΦA akan tegak lurus terhadap ΦF.
  • Gambar 4b, memperlihatkan kondisi reaksi jangkar saat generator dibebani kapasitif , sehingga arus jangkar Ia mendahului ggl Eb sebesar θ dan ΦA terbelakang terhadap ΦF dengan sudut (90 -θ).
  • Gambar 4c, memperlihatkan kondisi reaksi jangkar saat dibebani kapasitif murni yang mengakibatkan arus jangkar Ia mendahului GGL Eb sebesar 90° dan ΦA akan memperkuat ΦF yang berpengaruh terhadap pemagnetan. 
  • Gambar 4d, memperlihatkan kondisi reaksi jangkar saat arus diberi beban induktif murni sehingga mengakibatkan arus jangkar Ia terbelakang dari GGL Eb sebesar 90° dan ΦA akan memperlemah ΦF yang berpengaruh terhadap pemagnetan.
Jumlah dari reaktansi bocor XL dan reaktansi jangkar Xa biasa disebut reaktansi Sinkron Xs. Vektor diagram untuk beban yang bersifat Induktif, resistif murni, dan kapasitif diperlihatkan pada Gambar 5a, 5b dan 5c.

Gambar 5a, 5b dan 5c. Vektor Diagram dari Beban Generator

Berdasarkan gambar diatas, maka bisa ditentukan besarnya tegangan jatuh yang terjadi, yaitu :

Total Tegangan Jatuh pada Beban      = I.Ra + j (I.Xs + I.XL)
                                                         = I [Ra + j (Xs + XL)]
                                                         = I [Ra + j (Xs)]
                                                         = I.Zs

Kamis, 20 Oktober 2011

Step Up Transformer: Save Yourself A Lot Of Money

Author: Harry Carlin

Most of the experienced and reputed manufacturers produce certified transformers and hence they are safer to use.
In order to use electrical appliances safely it is important to check its wattage capacity. A voltage transformer can transform the flow of current and set it as per the requirement of the gadget. A voltage transformer is basically of two types. One is a Step Up Transformer in which the voltage of the transformer steps up which means that it transforms the low voltage into higher voltage. In this the transformer is designer in a manner where the power from the main windings is increased into secondary windings. This is used to increase in the voltage from the primary windings to the secondary windings. In Step Up Transformers the voltage augments in the secondary winding and is accompanied by parallel decrease in the electricity. This means that if an electrical device allows 220 volt and the main power supply is 110 volts then the transformer will double the voltage and make the power supply compatible with the equipment. The wattage capacity of the transformer differs.
Another type of transformer is used to cut the voltage into half and is known as Step Down Transformer. In this the primary voltage is higher than secondary voltage and is used to reduce the voltage from the primary winding to the secondary winding. This means that the current of the electricity transforms from a higher level to a lower level. This is important to make the voltage compatible with your electricity gadget so that nothing harmful happens to your product. This means that if you have a gadget which requires 110 volt and the main power diffusion is 220 volt then the Step Down Transformer will cut the voltage into half and will make it compatible to your gadget. This process involves features like electrical isolation, voltage distribution and control. It saves a lot of energy. It is better to use a transformer made of copper coils so that its efficiency increases.
Initially one can believe that transformer made of copper windings is expensive but it surely saves a lot of money and in due course of time, it definitely balances the total cost paid on it. A frequent traveler must carry these type of transformers to save themselves money to be used on other important stuffs. But since these are electronic gadgets it is always safe to go through every details and understand its uses properly so that no harm comes either in the transformer or in the electrical appliances that you are using it with. On one side Step up Transformer doubles the total voltage and increases the power of the gadget. Similarly while on the other side Step Down Transformers saves power and makes the flow of current compatible to your expensive electrical gadget. A CE certified transformer should be your first choice to get a better value of your money.
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Harry carlin is a professional writer, presently writing for Voltage Converter and Voltage Stabilizers .

Jumat, 14 Oktober 2011

Uninterruptible Power Systems to Avoid Potential Damage to Electrical Devices

Author: Article Expert

The growing demand in the installation of uninterruptible power systems is the result of surging application of computers and telecommunication and other electrical peripherals in offices, business organizations and homes as well. The power protection system acts as a benefactor that provides continuous power backup to electrical appliances in the event of power cuts. No doubt, there are several contributing factors responsible for power cuts even though spikes, surges, brownouts and blackouts being the prominent. Uninterruptible power systems prevent power failure problems and releases incessant supply of power to electrical devices to avoid their physical damages.

If reports are to be believed, uninterruptible power systems have occupied every organization to carry out day to day affairs effortlessly. Even it would not be wrong to say that there is hardly any home or office lest without installing the uninterruptible power systems.Integrated with high-end specifications, these devices provide backup power and are started automatically to source power to electrical appliances during power failure. The device contains a power input, power output, battery and a control system that switches the electrical devices load to battery power at the time of failure of main power supply. As the terms uninterruptible power system denote nonstop supply of power so the device gets activated within the 25 millisecond of power loss to discharge electricity to electronic appliances and protect them from potential losses.

There is a revelation that uninterruptible power systems have reached the acme of popularity due to their less expensive costs. Reasons being these are available online with a wide variety of models in different specifications and loading capacity to meet power supply demand of various industry verticals. Once these systems are installed in homes and offices, these can filter, enhance, and modify the utility power along with maintaining the clean and consistent power supply with the help of special circuitry and batteries. However, there are two models of uninterruptible power systems available in the market, - online UPS and off-line UPS. The online one is more preferable as compared to the off-line UPS and the former does not require human intervention to start working. But both are easily accessible online for home or office use at unbeatable prices.
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Elcos Generators from Riello UPS, leading manufacturer of uninterruptible power supplies and Uninterruptible Power Systems, provides diesel with bespoke custom designs including CHP generating sets, silent generators and containerised generators.

Improve The Performance of Electrical Systems with The Power Protection System

Author: Article Expert

Giving power protection to electrical equipments has become an obligatory task as far as today's work management systems are concerned. Whether it is a home, office or business organization, the availability and installation of the latest gadgets and gizmos can be quite obvious. But the crux of the tale is that these devices are more prone physical damage due to spikes, surges and brownouts. Even a minor fluctuation in AC power can cause damage to critical electrical devices like television or computers. In order to protect these sophisticated devices from the trauma of power problems, installation of power protection systems has become indispensable. The power protection system is worthy enough to supply incessant power as well as provide protection to electrical appliances during power cuts or voltage fluctuation.

In an ordinary sense, power protection simply connotes plugging every critical electrical device into an economical power strip equipped with a circuit breaker. But the fact is that the plugging does not provide adequate power protection to all electrical devices from being damaged due to power problems. As a result, the use of power protection systems has got prominence in every service and manufacturing sector, not to mention their application is equally essential to carry out activities in home as well.

It is recommended to purchase a power protection device after assessing the power load required by electrical appliances that need to be protected. In fact, awareness on electrical systems helps one to choose the most appropriate level of power protection that would provide complete protection to its connected devices. Today, manufacturers have introduced an extensive range of power protection devices in the market with the perspective to meet the specialized needs of different electrical devices. The following are a few commonly used power protection devices across home and offices including:

Surge Protector – The surge protector is developed keeping in mind the hazardous impact of lightning and power overloads on electrical appliances. Actually, this system primarily regulates the voltage and maintains the flow of power.

Power Regeneration – Fluctuation in voltage may raise the risk of potential physical damage of an electrical system. In that case, the power regeneration system can come to the rescue of those electrical devices that are susceptible to brownouts, blackouts, heavy loads, spikes and line noise as it is designed to keep power flowing constantly and in same amount.

Uninterruptible Power Supply – This system provides uninterrupted power and protection to electrical appliances during power failure.
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About the Author is a leading manufacturer and supplier of Power Protection solutions and various ranges of standby power systems for different types of electronics devices.